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Vladimir - travels on the map

Description

Vladimir 

Vladimir (Russian: Владимир; IPA: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr]) is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, 200 kilometers (120 mi) to the east of Moscow. It is served by a railway and the M7 motorway. Population: 345,373 (2010 Census); 315,954 (2002 Census); 349,702 (1989 Census).

Vladimir was one of the medieval capitals of Russia, with significant buildings surviving from the 12th century. Two of its Russian Orthodox cathedrals, a monastery, and associated buildings have been designated as among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the past, the city was also known as Vladimir-on-Klyazma (Владимир-на-Клязьме) and Vladimir-Zalessky (Владимир-Залесский), to distinguish it from another Vladimir in Volhynia (modern Ukraine).

History

The area occupied by the city of Vladimir has been inhabited by humans (at least intermittently) for approximately 25,000 years. They developed successive cultures, which have been revealed by archeological, linguistic, and DNA evidence.

Foundation date controversy

Traditionally, the founding date of Vladimir has been acknowledged as 1108, as the first mention of Vladimir in the Primary Chronicle appears under that year. This view attributes the founding of the city, and its name, to Vladimir Monomakh, who inherited the region as part of the Rostov-Suzdal Principality in 1093. Being established long after the city of Vladimir in Volhynia, initially it was named Vladimir-on-Klyazma. In 1958, the 850th anniversary of the city foundation was celebrated, with many monuments from the celebrations adorning the city.

In the 1990s, a new opinion developed that the city is older than this. Scholars reinterpreted certain passages in the Hypatian Codex, which mentions that the region was visited by Vladimir the Great, the "father" of Russian Orthodoxy, in 990, so as to move the city foundation date to that year. The defenders of the previously uncontested founding year of 1108 dispute the claims of those who support the new date, arguing that the new theory was fabricated in order to provide a reason to have a celebration in 1995.

The neighboring town of Suzdal, for instance, was mentioned in 1024. Its 12th-century inhabitants alluded to Vladimir as a young town and treated its rulers with arrogance. In the words of a major chronicle, they said that the people of Vladimir were "their kholops and scions". In the seniority conflicts of the 12th and early 13th centuries, Vladimir was repeatedly described as a "young town" compared to Suzdal and Rostov. Nevertheless, the Charter of Vladimir, the basic law of the city passed in 2005, explicitly mentions 990 as the date of the city's foundation.

Golden Age

The city's most historically significant events occurred after the turn of the 12th century. Serving its original purpose as a defensive outpost for the Rostov-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir had little political or military influence throughout the reign of Vladimir Monomakh (1113–1125), or his son Yury Dolgoruky ("Far-Reaching") (1154–1157).

Dormition Cathedral was a venerated model for cathedrals all over Russia
St. Demetrius' Cathedral, shown on this 1912 photo, is famous for its masterfully carved exterior, representing the Biblical story of King David.

Under Dolgoruky's son, Andrey Bogolyubsky (1157–1175) (also known as Andrew the Pious), the city became the center of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. It had a Golden Age, which lasted until the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237. During this time, Vladimir enjoyed immense growth and prosperity. Andrey oversaw the building of the city's Golden Gates and the Dormition Cathedral. In 1164, Andrey attempted to establish a new metropolitanate in Vladimir, separate from that of Kiev. He was rebuffed by the Patriarch of Constantinople.

Scores of Russian, German, and Georgian masons worked on Vladimir's white stone cathedrals, monastery, towers, and palaces. Unlike any other northern buildings, their exterior was elaborately carved with high relief stone sculptures. Only three of these edifices stand today: the Dormition Cathedral, the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius, and the Golden Gate. They are included among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During Andrey's reign, a royal palace in Bogolyubovo was built, as well as the world-famous Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, now considered one of the jewels of ancient Russian architecture. Andrey was assassinated at his palace at Bogolyubovo in 1175.

Decline

Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before sacking the city.

Vladimir was besieged by the Mongol-Tatars of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan. It was finally overrun on February 8, 1238. A great fire destroyed thirty-two limestone buildings on the first day alone, while the grand prince's family perished in a church where they sought refuge from the flames. The grand prince escaped, but was killed at the Battle of the Sit River the following month.

After the Mongols, Vladimir never fully recovered. The most important Rus' prince (usually the Prince of Moscow, but sometimes of Tver or another principality) was styled the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but the title had become an honorific symbol of majesty. From 1299 to 1325, the city was seat of the metropolitans of Kiev and All Rus', until Metropolitan Peter moved the see to Moscow.

The Grand Princes of Vladimir were originally crowned in Vladimir's Assumption Cathedral, but when Moscow superseded Vladimir in the 14th century as the seat of the Grand Prince, the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin became the site of their coronation. The Moscow cathedral was loosely copied by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti from Vladimir's original.

After the rise of Moscow, Grand Princes of Moscow continued to build several new churches in Vladimir. Notable examples include the Annunciation Church at Snovitsy (ca. 1501), three kilometers northwest of the city, and a church in the Knyaginin nunnery (ca. 1505), with murals dating to 1648.

Remains of the prince-saint Alexander Nevsky were kept in the ancient Nativity abbey of Vladimir until 1703, when Peter the Great had them transferred to the Monastery (now Lavra) of Aleksandr Nevsky in St. Petersburg. The Nativity church (built in 1191–1196) collapsed several years later, after workmen tried to fashion more windows in its walls in an effort to brighten the interior.

In the years 1838-1840 Alexander Herzen exiled in Vladimir, passing through the city infamous "Vladimirka". In 1861, traffic on the route Moscow-Vladimir Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod Railway. Since December 1858 the city began to operate telegraph, in 1866 completed construction of water supply, with 1887 appeared telephone and on December 5, 1908 the first power. November 29, 1898 Vladimir provincial scientific archival commission was established.

Soviet period

After the establishment of Soviet power, many streets were renamed Vladimir; most of the parish churches were closed and condemned to be demolished.

However, in the first decades of Soviet rule industrialization occurred in Vladimir. On January 14, 1929 the city became part of the newly formed Ivanovo Industrial Region.

August 14, 1944 Vladimir became the administrative center of the region . In December 1944, based Vladimir Regional Library Gorky. In 1950 on the basis of teachers' institute created Vladimir Pedagogical Institute. On November 5, 1952 the first trolleybus line began to operate in the city.

In 1958 was created the Vladimir-Suzdal Historical -Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve, which is composed of a group of unique architectural monuments of Russian defense and church architecture, located in three cities - Vladimir, Suzdal and Gus-Khrustalny, as well as villages of Bogolyubovo and Kideksha.

Architecture of the Soviet period is represented by such structures as building complexes and polytechnic colleges, stadium "Torpedo" (1952), reinforced concrete arch bridge over the river Klyaz'ma (1960), the hotel Vladimir (1956), Drama Theatre (1971) and others. In 1971 the city was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor.

Administrative and municipal status

Vladimir is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventeen rural localities, incorporated as the City of Vladimir—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Vladimir is incorporated as Vladimir Urban Okrug.

Economy and military

Vladimir is home to several electrical and chemical factories, several food processing plants and two large thermal power stations. Tourism related to the historical sites is a major contributor to the city economy.

The headquarters of the 27th Guards Rocket Army of the Strategic Missile Troops is located in the city. During the Cold War, Vladimir was host to the Dobrynskoye air force base.

Transport

Vladimir railway station, August 2008
Trolleybus ZiU-9

Since 1861, there has been a railway connection between Vladimir and Moscow. Vladimir is also linked to Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod by the M7 highway. Local transport includes buses, trolleybuses,fixed-route minivans, and taxis.

Vladimir bus service links the city to all the district centers of Vladimir Oblast, as well as Moscow, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan, Yaroslavl and other cities.

Vladimir daily through the station passes of at least 20 pairs of long-distance trains, year-round direct rail links Vladimir is linked to Moscow (Kursk Station), St. Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Since the summer of 2010 Vladimir associated with Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow direct flights high-speed train "Peregrine Falcon".

Developed suburban rail. Vladimir was the only city in Russia involving commuter trains at once with two Russian cities with subway. If you go by train from Vladimir, the nearest station in Moscow – "Novokosino", Nizhny Novgorod – "Moscow." In November 2012 Vladimir–Nizhny Novgorod train was canceled.

The city is served by the Semyazino Airport 5km west of the city center.

Climate

Vladimir experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.

Climate data for Vladimir
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
9.5
(49.1)
17.8
(64)
27.8
(82)
34.0
(93.2)
34.4
(93.9)
37.1
(98.8)
36.5
(97.7)
29.5
(85.1)
25.0
(77)
14.8
(58.6)
9.2
(48.6)
37.1
(98.8)
Average high °C (°F) −5.6
(21.9)
−5.0
(23)
1.5
(34.7)
10.9
(51.6)
18.6
(65.5)
22.1
(71.8)
24.3
(75.7)
22.0
(71.6)
15.7
(60.3)
8.0
(46.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−4.4
(24.1)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.5
(16.7)
−8.5
(16.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
5.7
(42.3)
12.6
(54.7)
16.6
(61.9)
18.8
(65.8)
16.5
(61.7)
10.8
(51.4)
4.6
(40.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.0
(19.4)
4.7
(40.5)
Average low °C (°F) −11.3
(11.7)
−11.5
(11.3)
−5.8
(21.6)
1.4
(34.5)
7.3
(45.1)
11.8
(53.2)
14.0
(57.2)
12.1
(53.8)
7.2
(45)
2.1
(35.8)
−4.7
(23.5)
−9.4
(15.1)
1.1
(34)
Record low °C (°F) −39.7
(−39.5)
−36.1
(−33)
−30.0
(−22)
−16.1
(3)
−9.0
(15.8)
0.0
(32)
3.9
(39)
0.0
(32)
−6.3
(20.7)
−18.9
(−2)
−27.2
(−17)
−43.0
(−45.4)
−43.0
(−45.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
30
(1.18)
29
(1.14)
33
(1.3)
45
(1.77)
78
(3.07)
63
(2.48)
62
(2.44)
52
(2.05)
69
(2.72)
48
(1.89)
44
(1.73)
585
(23.03)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 30
(11.8)
43
(16.9)
41
(16.1)
21
(8.3)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(1.6)
9
(3.5)
16
(6.3)
166
(65.3)
Avg. rainy days 5 3 6 12 15 17 15 15 16 16 10 5 135
Avg. snowy days 22 19 12 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 13 21 93
Average relative humidity (%) 86 82 76 71 67 73 76 79 82 85 88 87 79
Source: Pogoda.ru.net

Sightseeing

View of Vladimir
Public park in Vladimir

Modern Vladimir is a part of the Golden Ring of the ancient Russian cities and a popular tourist destination. Its three chief monuments, White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, inscribed by UNESCO on the World Heritage List, are the following:

  1. The magnificent five-domed Assumption Cathedral was designed as a sepulcher of grand princes and dedicated to the holy icon Theotokos of Vladimir, which had been brought to the city by Andrew the Pious. The cathedral was constructed in 1158–1160, expanded in 1185–1189, and painted by the great Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chyorny in 1408. In 1810, a lofty bell-tower was added in Neoclassical style.
  2. The warrior-like cathedral of St. Demetrius was built in 1194–1197 as a private chapel of Vsevolod the Big Nest in the courtyard of his palace and was consecrated to his holy patron, St. Demetrius. For all its formal unity, the cathedral represents an international project of Russian and Byzantine masters, Friedrich Barbarossa's masons, and carvers sent by Queen Tamar of Georgia.
  3. The Golden Gate, originally a tower over the city's main gate, was built in 1158–1164. The gate acquired its present form after having been reconstructed in the late 18th century, to prevent the dilapidated structure from tumbling down.

Other remarkable monuments of pre-Mongol Russian architecture are scattered in the vicinity. For more information on them, see Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky, Bogolyubovo, and Kideksha.

Education

Vladimir is the site of the following education establishments:

  • Vladimir State University
  • Vladimir Judicial Institute of the Ministry of Justice
  • Vladimir Business Institute
  • Vladimir Pedagogical College
  • The American Home English & Russian Language School

Vladimir is also home to the Federal Centre for Animal Health and Welfare.

Sports

The city association football team, FC Torpedo Vladimir, currently plays in the Football Championship of the National League (former Russian First Division), having entered the second level of Russian professional football after seventeen years of competing in Russian Second Division and Russian Third League. Vladimir VC (previously known as Skat and Dinamo Vladimir) represents the city in Volleyball Major League B – Zone Europe.

Vladimir is also home to Polaris-Vladimir ice hockey club, which competes in regional hockey competitions and Russian minor leagues, and both male and female Luch table-tennis teams.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Vladimir is twinned with:

  • Italy Anghiari, Italy
  • China Baotze, China
  • United States Bloomington–Normal, United States
  • Italy Campobasso, Italy
  • United Kingdom Canterbury, United Kingdom
  • Philippines Cebu City, Philippines
  • China Chongqing, China
  • Germany Erlangen, Germany
  • Finland Kerava, Finland
  • Bulgaria Kardzhali, Bulgaria
  • Japan Nara, Japan
  • United States Sarasota, United States
  • Italy Trento, Italy
  • Czech Republic Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
  • Poland Jelenia Góra, Poland

Notable people

Mikhail Lazarev, 19th-century fleet commander and maritime explorer
  • Valentin Afonin, association football player
  • Yuri Lodigin, association football player
  • Nikolai Andrianov, gymnast
  • Vladimir Artemov, gymnast
  • Aleksey Batalov, actor
  • Mikhail Lazarev, admiral
  • Yuri Levitan, radio announcer
  • Anna Loginova, fashion model
  • Alexey Prokurorov, cross-country skier
  • Yuri Ryazanov, gymnast
  • Vasily Shulgin, politician
  • Mikhail Speransky, statesman
  • Aleksandr Stoletov, physicist
  • Nikolai Stoletov, general
  • Sergei Taneyev, composer
  • Dmitri Vyazmikin, association football player
  • Venedikt Yerofeyev, writer
  • Denis Yevsikov, association football player
  • Nikolay Zhukovsky, scientist

Photo (36)

Рождественский монастырьтропинкаГостиницаПамятник репрессированнымМозайка на стене Рождественского монастыряВладимир. Большая Московская улицаВид с обрываВладимирBolshaya Moskovskaya Str.This tample was builded in 2005Надвратная церковь святого Иоанна Предтечи. Богородице-Рождественский мужской монастырь. (Один из древнейших в России. Основан в 1191 г. ). Владимир. Россия. Апрель 2013 г.Храм Рождества Христова. Богородице-Рождественский мужской монастырь. (Один из древнейших в России. Основан в 1191 г. ). Владимир. Россия. Апрель 2013 г.This tample was builded in 2005Vladimir: Nativity MonasteryВладимирВладимир. Вид с железной дороги через вокзалВладимир. Гостиница Владимир. Дом 63 на Б.Московской►Владимир. Улица Большая Московская. Вид на Церковь Николы при Кремле (Большая Московская, 66а)►Владимир. Улица Большая Московская. Стена Владимирского Кремля►Владимир. Гостиница "Владимир" (Большая Московская, 74)►Владимир. Пристенный Храм Рождества Христова (Большая Московская, 68)Vladimir. Nativity Monastery. Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.Within Nativity Monastery, 17.06.2013.Chimney, 17.06.2013.Богородице рождественский монастырь►Владимир. Перекрёсток ул. Большой Московской и ул. СтолетовыхРождественский монастырь, архиерейские палаты, середина 18 вВладимирVladimirВладимир. КремльВладимир. Рождественский монастырьВладимир. Рождественский монастырьРождественский монастырьРождественский монастырьWithin Nativity Monastery, 17.06.2013.

Video (1)

Street view

Yandex air view panorama

Reviews

25.09.2016 Natalya
a very beautiful city!!! will be back for more !
29.08.2016 Yuri Geler
pure
 10
15.07.2016 Vit
Quiet, few people, beautiful!
15.06.2016 Vitya Naymushin
 10
12.06.2016 Anton Ivanov
A Soviet building, did not fit into the view on the hill with the monuments of architecture of the 13th century... Bad navigation in the station. The train arrived to the second platform, but how to get there, was not clear. A lot of shops, but the service... It is not there. I guess I was just unlucky. I am sure that in such a beautiful city, kind people anymore. Frame with metal detectors are for beauty, are only used when landing on a speeding train.
 4
16.11.2015 Anton Afanasyew
 8
18.08.2015 Umit
Starting from the Golden Gate, cross the bridge and the park area is very dynamic. Truly a city. The bridge McDonald's, of course, the best place is the Free WiFi.
02.07.2015 Maksim
Many historic sites and attractions! Beautiful and peaceful...
28.06.2015 Inna
A huge city!
28.02.2015 Alina
Very interesting Museum in the water tower about the history and life of Vladimir!
28.01.2015 Malenkaya
Want to ever come here purposefully and pobrodit in the city, not transit, as it usually happens...
14.11.2014 Aleksey Prytkov
 8
11.11.2014 Andrey Vasilevich
A lot of shops with Souvenirs. Train from MSK is 30 minutes - you can walk around and at least from afar to see the cathedrals
 10
22.09.2014 Sergey
Beers net of вокзале((
21.08.2014 Alisa
Favorite soulful city. Cultural heritage. ?
22.07.2014 Andrey Lavrov
Super
 10
12.06.2014 Liliya?
Finally in the morning we checked into the hotel . IMPORTANT TIP : do not come here in advance , not to book an hotel !!!
21.05.2014 Yana
What is still nice and green city!!!
08.04.2014 Aleksey
Do not put the car on the street of noble family, once gone, will be taken to the penalty Parking, take away all in a row, fee-fine+tow
04.03.2014 Dmitry
A surreal place!!!!
04.03.2014 Dmitry
A surreal place!??? I love this city!!!
03.03.2014 murtaza ayaztekin
 6
06.02.2014 under4et
 10
31.10.2013 Ekaterina
The city is very grey:(
26.10.2013 Mikhail
Vladimir was born our Goalkeeper Yuri Lodygin. Zenit - champion!
19.07.2013 Nastya ?
A very beautiful city ??
08.07.2013 knopych
Call for bitter! Here cool!!!
13.06.2013 ? Irina
In this town sorry, if you can't provide a taxi within 5 minutes.. O_o
07.06.2013 Foursquare po-russki
Vladimir — the historic city, administrative center of the Vladimir region. Located on the Bank of the Klyazma river is 176 km from Moscow. The population 345,9 thousand people. Part of the Golden ring of Russia.
02.05.2013 Pavel
Road - tough, the motorist required their advanced maneuvering between pits.
01.05.2013 Mashka
Cinnabon just above the stairs from the bus station to eat on the slaughter cheap!! Dumplings "from the chef" is great!:)
11.03.2013 marina
Favorite city ❤
10.03.2013 Leonid
Beautiful girls, like the city)
23.02.2013 Marina
Yes beautiful city!!!!
01.02.2013 glazger
The city as a city. A pleasant stroll from the Golden Gate to the assumption Cathedral.
01.12.2012 Antaliya
Rain, snow, snowdrifts and puddles
24.11.2012 Juan Luis Jimeno
Train station
 6
20.11.2012 Aleksey
impressions: a good city if you wish to visit in the Central belt of Russia, however the service and facilities are just beginning to develop
30.09.2012 Mustafa
It's definitely one of the places I want to see
14.09.2012 Anton
On the bypass can go. The repairs were done
04.08.2012 Ivan
Lovely city,recommend to visit
24.06.2012 Olya
 drove by...nice)
09.06.2012 Anzhelika
There are traffic jams, even some
11.05.2012 Nadin
It's a spike component of the globe. Here you can stock up products,not to think of them at the entrance to Moscow. going on the Pekinku
07.05.2012 Daniil
A city of contrasts)
07.04.2012 Dasha
I want to go here.. and all the time travel..(((
10.03.2012 Olga
Need to know where to go,McDonald's is not the best choice,for example around the Golden gate café cart very
04.03.2012 Daria
Though rarely here, but always aptly PTS!!!I love this city,especially some of the people living in it))))
27.01.2012 Bedoevanina
Cool here, stop complaining:)
18.12.2011 Denis
the capital of the Vladimir region!

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