Battle of Borodino
The largest and bloodiest battle of the French invasion of Russia took place here on September 7, 1812
August 26, old style, September 7, new, on the field of Borodino was the largest battle of the war of 1812 between the Russian army under the command of General Mikhail Kutuzov and the French army of Napoleon I Bonaparte. It happened near the village of Borodino, 125 km away from Moscow. The battle lasted 12 hours and played a big role in the war of 1812.
"The battle of Borodino was the most beautiful and the most dangerous, the French have shown themselves worthy of victory, a Russian deserve to be invincible" - Napoleon
The battle of Borodino is well described in Lev Tolstoy novel "War and peace":
A direct consequence of the battle of Borodino was unreasonable escape of Napoleon from Moscow, the return along the old Smolensk road, the destruction of five hundred thousand soldiers of the army and destruction of Napoleonic France, on which for the first time under the battle of Borodino was imposed by the spirit the strongest hand of the enemy".
A lot of monuments and statues remind us of the tragic events and the enormous human losses. In midfield Spaso-Borodinsky monastery. In 1838 it was founded by M. Tuchkova, the widow of General A. Tuchkov, who died in the battle of Borodino.
In 1839 in the village of Borodino was created the Palace and Park ensemble, which consisted of the Nativity Church (1701), a wooden palace, rebuilt from the manor-house, park and outbuildings. Also, the open air exhibition includes:
- Hill with the monument to Mikhail Kutuzov. Here was located Russian artillery fortification on the day of the battle.
- The Battery of Rajewski. The main monument to the heroes of Borodino. The tomb of General Pyotr Bagration.
- Height of Roubaud is a historical place where the painter Franz Roubaud did sketches to the "Borodino battle" panorama.
- Shevardino - Shevardino redoubt, progressive strengthening of the Russian army.
- The monument to the French fallen soldiers of Napoleon's army.
- Bagration's fleches – place of a bloody three-hour battle.
Famous battles happened here during the great Patriotic war, 12 - 17 October 1941, when the soldiers of the Soviet 5th army under the commandment of major-General Lelyushenko for six days resisted a powerful attack of Nazi troops rushing to Moscow. The pillboxes, trenches and other fortifications remained on the battlefield. Monuments, including the T-34 tank, mass graves of fallen soldiers
In 1961 it was announced that Borodino field becomes State Borodino military-historical Museum-reserve. The territory of the Museum-reserve covers 110 square kilometers. There are more than 200 monuments and memorials, a Museum with a permanent exhibition.