Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Museum in village Darovoye
Here Dostoyevsky spent his childhood
The Museum is located in the village of Darovoye, which was acquired by the father of Fyodor Dostoyevsky for summer holidays of family. Darovoye is a picturesque corner of Moscow region. There is a forest near the Museum. The exhibition is located in a wooden outbuilding, once owned by Dostoevsky. The "estate" is a small nondescript wooden house with two rooms, almost empty and a stretch of forest with three hundred year old oaks, the remains of the shaft boundary (property line).
The exhibition includes copies of letters and photos. There is a monument to Fyodor Dostoyevsky the work of Y. F. Ivanov near the Museum.
There is an abandoned church in the village, near which was probably buried Dostoevsky's father, who died in Darovoye.
"It's a small and imperfect place left me with the deep and strong impression on all later life"
In 1831 Dostoevsky's father bought the estate of Darovoye in the Tula province on the name of his wife, Maria Dostoevskaya. The estate consisted of 260 acres of land, which included hay meadows, arable land, forest, lime grove, a garden and a hamlet consisting of 20 households, of which 11 belonged to Dostoevsky. "The terrain in our village was very pleasant and picturesque. Little house built with clay in the manner of the southern buildings, it consisted of three small rooms and was situated in lime grove, a fairly large and shady. This grove through a small field adjacent to birch wood, which is very thick and with a rather bleak and wild terrain, riddled with ravines. This grove was called Brykovo. <...> Brother Fyodor liked forest of Brykovo from the beginning, so that in our family it was called Fedya grove..."
A deep ravine ran through the estate, part of which had been turned into a deep pond where the peasants watered the cattle, fished farmed fish, swam. After the fire of 1832, when burned almost all the village, Dostoevsky was built a wooden outbuilding, where moved all the family.
In 1833 the neighboring estate of Cheremoshna was bought, which bordered by Darovoye, and Dostoyevskys became the owners of 500 acres of land and 100 peasants. The Dostoyevsky family spent the summer months here. After the death of his parents Darovoye belonged to his younger brother Andrey Dostoyevsky, and then to his sisters and their children. Dostoyevsky abandoned his share of the estate at Darovoye in 1844, receiving as a compensation 500 silver rubles.
According to the memoirs of Andrei Dostoevsky, all children in the family liked to relax in the Darovoye, and in the autumn they did not want to return to Moscow. "And nothing in my life I liked like the woods with its mushrooms and wild berries, its insects and birds, hedgehogs and squirrels, with its much-beloved raw smell leaves..." the last time Fyodor was resting at Darovoye in 1836. After moving to St. Petersburg and entered "adult life" he never managed to spend the summer so carefree. Children's experiences of meeting real Russian village became the source that fueled his work throughout his life. In Dostoevsky's prose there are few descriptions of nature. He was, undoubtedly, an urban writer. But in his rare landscapes, feel deep, heartfelt connection with nature. In difficult times of loneliness and despair, Dostoyevsky would recall episodes from his short commune with nature, translating them into amazingly vivid and emotional images.
I was watching a whole series of acute scythers, with every wave of scythe, together bathed in light and then suddenly disappear again, like a fiery snakes, as if they where hid; as cut from the root of the grass was dense, fatty breasts flew to the side and fitted in straight long furrows...", Love for nature, feeling the soil, the earth, all life, is so strongly etched in the soul of Dostoyevsky-child in Darovoye that after 20 years, once in the chamber and having lost the opportunity to see St. Petersburg stunted nature, it easily creates a striking and expressive bouquet that 11-year-old hero of his story, in awe of the first, ill-informed feelings, collected for his lady. It had stirred all the field of grass and flowers - rose, Jasmine, cornflowers, ears of rye, forget-me-nots, bluebells, carnations, pansies, maple leaves - all that the writer remembered from earlier encounters with nature. Then, in childhood, the surrounding world seemed limitless. In the Peter and Paul fortress and nature was in prison: "I've again been allowed to walk in the garden, which has almost seventeen trees. And it is a great happiness for me..."
Dostoyevsky was convinced of the great significance of the aesthetic impact of nature on the human soul. The famous image of the slanting rays of the sun that appear frequently in his prose, "sticky note paper", about which so thrilled his hero says-intellectual Ivan Karamazov, a land which in the ecstasy of the kisses and hugs Alyosha - these symbolic signs of unity of man with nature were perceived by the writer in his childhood.
Darovoye and Cheremoshna associated with tragic memories. In June 1839 under circumstances still not clarified, in his estate dead Mikhail Dostoyevsky. Suspected that he was murdered by serfs. According to the official version, the death was caused by apoplexy. Father's death made a strong impression on Dostoevsky and is reflected in his works, especially in "The Brothers Karamazov", where the theme of parricide is the central and certainly bears the sheen of a family tragedy.
In later years he was going to visit his home, to see Darovoye and its inhabitants. He managed to do it only in 1877. Dostoyevsky's wife, Anna wrote about this trip: "...the husband and I visited various places in the Park and surrounding area, dear to him the memories, and even went on foot (two miles from the estate) to loved in childhood grove "Ceremony", a name which he later called the grove in the novel the Brothers Karamazov. Fyodor came into peasunts' huts, his peers, many of whom he remembered. The old men and women and peers, who remembered him from childhood, joyfully welcomed him, invited him into their cottages and were treated to tea. A trip to Darovoye brought a lot of memories, about a map on arrival gave us a great revival..."
In 20-ies of the house at Darovoye, where we did not have any family members Dostoyevskys, was turned into a village library. Family items were brought to Moscow, on Bozhedomka street, where he then created the first Dostoevsky Museum. In 1955 at Darovoe was created "room of Dostoevsky," in which were exhibited the photographs received from the Moscow Museum. Since 1974 the estate of Darovoe acquired the status of a Museum of national importance, and since August 1990, he became affiliated with the Zaraisk Museum of art.
Currently in preserved house that belonged to Dostoevsky's there is an exposition representing the period of their stay at Darovoe. Preserved old buildings in Darovoye and Cheremoshne, lime avenue, orchard and pond.
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