Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (Russian: Нижегородский кремль) is a fortress in Nizhny Novgorod, the historic city center.
The first attempt to replace the wooden fort on the stone Kremlin refers to 1374, but construction limited to only one tower, known as the Tower of Dmitrov (not survived to our time). Under the rule of Ivan III, Nizhny Novgorod plays the role of guard city, having a standing army, and serves as a place of military gathering troops on Moscow's actions against Khanate of Kazan. In order to strengthen the defenses of the city, again begin the construction works of the walls.
Beginning of construction of the stone Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod became the building in 1500 in the coastal town of Ivanovo Tower, but the main work unfolded in 1508 and in the short term to 1515 a grandiose building was completed. Cause of destruction of the old fortifications, oak walls, was a huge fire in 1513. Two-kilometer wall reinforced by 13 towers (one of them - Zachatskaya - on the shore of the Volga, not preserved). "Stone City" had a permanent garrison with solid artillery weapons. With the fall of Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin lost its military significance, and later it housed the city authorities, principalities, and provinces.
January 30, 1949 issued an order of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of the restoration of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.
To date, preserved 13 towers of the Kremlin. Counter clockwise:
- Tower of George
- Tower of Boris and Gleb (destroyed by a landslide in the 18th century, restored in 1972)
- Tower of Conception (destroyed by a landslide in the 18th century, restored in 2012)
- White Tower
- Tower of John
- Clock Tower
- North Tower
- Secret Tower
- Yoke Tower
- Tower of Nicholas
- Pantry Tower
- Tower of Demetrius
- Powder Tower
Tower of George
Tower of Boris and Gleb
Tower of Conception
Tower of Nicholas
Tower of Demetrius
Other buildings and constructions
In the Kremlin were many churches, but to date, leaving only Michael the Archangel Cathedral, built no later than the middle of the 16th century and rebuilt in 1628-1631, the oldest surviving building in the Kremlin. The cathedral is the tomb of Kuzma Minin. In 1828, in front of the Archangel Cathedral was constructed the obelisk in honor of Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky (architect Melnikov and Martos).
In 1837-1841 was built the house of the military governor (now the building is the Museum of Art), in 1840-1843 at the direction of Nicholas I, was built the Arsenal. In 1931, in place of the Transfiguration Cathedral was built the House of Soviets, now the building is City Council.
In 1965, near the obelisk of Minin and Pozharsky was lit the Eternal Flame and created memorial complex in honor of Nizhny Novgorod citizens who died in World War II.